Certificates allow you to complete a specific group of university courses (for credit) as either part of your degree studies or separately. Additional details on certificates are available here.
Actuarial Science is the area of mathematics that applies quantitative methods to assess risks in the insurance and finance industries. It became a formal discipline in the late 17th century, when the increased demand for such long-term insurance coverages as life insurances, annuities, and burials expense coverages emerged. Since then and for a long time, actuaries have been interested in studying the present monetary value of future obligations as well as the variability of these present values in the contexts of life and health insurance, property and casualty insurance, pension funds and social wealth-fare programs. Today actuaries are also being employed in the areas of enterprise risk management, and even in general finance and investment.